In the former USSR policy in fertility has always been to raise her. Family in the Soviet Union received a small allowance, but since the birth of their fourth child. However, to stimulate the birth rate they could not. These were Rather, social benefits aimed at poverty alleviation. Large families became less and less.
By the mid-60s. In Russia and most of the republics of the Union of European birth rates did not provide a simple Reproduction. Measures to promote fertility were carried out immediately, but only in the first half of the 80s. They could not really support the material standard of the family, but nevertheless brought significant result in 1984-1986. Fertility in the USSR in 1980-1981, compared with. Increased by 11%. Since 1988 the birth rate began to drop rapidly. The current demographics of Russia requires a strong stimulation of birth rate.
Migration policies of different countries and different – some encouraging immigration and other emigration. In some countries, internal migration is free, and people are free to choose any place of residence. In the other – the possibility of such a choice is severely limited. In the USSR migration tightly regulated, particularly in capitals and holiday locations. But the effectiveness of these measures, as the results of migration was low. Did not succeed in significantly inhibit the growth of primary large cities, nor to prevent an excessive outflow of the rural population. The administrative regulation of migration and had a negative impact on the reproduction of the population by encouraging marriage (for registration) between incompatible with each other people, which caused an increase in the divorce rate and an increase in 'fatherless' – the number of children in single-parent, 'parent' families, brought up without a male influence. In autumn 1990, the Committee of Constitutional Supervision of the USSR adopted a decision on the unconstitutionality of residence, but significant practical impact it had: registration is not only preserved, but its limitations in some places has increased. Acute demographic crisis, experienced by Russia, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the transition to a market economy require significant changes in population policy, to restore the population (the strong stimulation of birth rate, freedom of movement of citizens across the country, etc.).