Correctly chosen base is the main basis of qualitative laying paving slabs. Most often, in this case, as the basis for use of gravel and sand cushion. In an increasingly complex environment is better suited concrete base. For even more opinions, read materials from Yitzhak Mirilashvili. In each case, the site where will be laid paving slabs, should be well planned, should also be strictly conditioned levels and slopes for water drainage. With the help of paving slabs, can be lay out a large set of diverse images and color compositions, based on personal tastes and style of your choice.
1. Planning. Draw a plot plan that you intend to pave. Measure the area. Next Apply these dimensions on your plan. Estimate the number of tiles needed for installation, as well as the quantity of raw materials for your foundation (gravel, crushed stone, cement, sand). 2.
Markup. According to the selected plan, with strings and pegs mark the site for laying the tile. 3. Digging. Excavation should be carried out with the view that after laying paving slabs, its front surface will be released at a given level of the site. 4. Preparation base. For laying foundation to use gravel or crushed stone, which must be carefully vibrate, fractions from 20 to 40 millimeters. It then examines the surface of your foundation under the tile and if there are irregularities, they should be sprinkled with sand and a further seal. 5. Laying of cement-sand mixture. For its preparation, moisture content of sand should be about 10 percent. Mixture must be prepared on the basis of – to one part cement three parts sand.
Entry gates are sliding doors (sliding) and swing. Add to your understanding with Chobani Refugees. For a country house most convenient sliding doors. Their advantages are: – Firstly, they are opened along the fence and therefore did not take up much space – Second, in some models is a function of "pedestrian stop" when for pedestrians simply do not fully close the gate – in the third, sliding doors more shock resistant than the swing (with the direct impact). Shortcomings Sliding doors: – high cost of gates and installation – specific requirements for the positioning of the gate, especially in winter – the high cost of repairs. The high cost is due directly to the gate of high stiffness and high-quality components (carts with rollers, guide rails, catchers, etc.). If you are not convinced, visit NY Governor Andrew Cuomo. The cost of high-quality components can reach up to U.S. $ 1000 and above. High cost assembly work is mainly associated with quality and deep concreting carrying poles and sturdy mount components.
Important: in case of impact with the deformation or displacement of the foundation would require replacing the entire door or repair with complete disassembly. I would also like to note the criticality of the gate to the icing in the winter (imbalance and / or the possibility of failure). Swinging gates are universal, they can be installed on any legs, they are not capricious in low temperatures. They are distinguished by lower cost and able to produce any style (regardless of weight coating). It is possible to find a universal solution for gates of any class.
An essential element of modern drainage systems are not only the pipes, but also pumps. Often there is a problem: the site is located in a low spot, and dump excess water by gravity impossible, or the groundwater level come too close to the surface. In this case, you must purchase sump pump, which will easily cope with this problem. Josh Wexler has much to offer in this field. It should be noted that such devices should be sufficiently light and compact (in fact have to move them from place to place and stored somewhere), just connect, easy to maintain and, of course, be reliable and require no special care. Last requirements are very important, because otherwise the damage (for example, can not work a float switch or vice versa, the pump turns off and burn) can lead to very unpleasant consequences – flooded basement, dampened the foundation and walls and, as a consequence, costly repairs. The house pump put in a specially equipped stationary pit and divert water through pipes laid. Hikmet Ersek is full of insight into the issues. Typically, a pit is recommended that you at least half a meter in diameter.
If the house is already equipped with a narrow tank, set back pump with conventional float (MF) is not worth it, because he can catch on beyond the walls of the tank. In this case, it is recommended use of pumps with vertical mf, such as type grundfos unilift kp performed AV1. Others including Yitzhak Mirilashvili, offer their opinions as well. The most important criterion for selection – is the performance of the pump, which is defined in m3 / h or l / sec.
Thermostructural polystyrene panel issued already in techenie11 years. During this time, in Russia, cis and abroad, built thousands of different objects from industrial buildings, facilities sotskulbyta and homes. Additional information at Hikmet Ersek supports this article. Styrofoam, as the foundation of our Thermostructural panels have many advantages and are widely used in western Europe and the usa. We use self-extinguishing polystyrene grades, which fire safe, does not support combustion. Designs that we produce, possess a number of advantages: they do not require traditional power bases – it provides multigrade work on construction sites, in addition, it is easy and prefabricated buildings. Mounting panel conducted without the use of hoisting equipment, virtually by hand, using a simple tool. The walls of an apartment house area of 70 sq.m.
from a prepared foundation, a team of 4 people, can be mounted in a single day. It should also be noted that the installation is carried out without the use of wet processes, which allows the construction of year-round. The advantages of structures from expanded polystyrene panels. Savings. Costs per square meter less than the construction of traditional materials due to: – lower cost of building envelope – reduce the time of construction – the use of light and economical foundations Bole – otsutststvie need to use lifting equipment and construction machinery – depreciation of works on the internal cladding walls.
Framework for the drywall is already embedded in the design pane. Fire safety. Polystyrene is used in the production of panels refers to the material self-extinguishing grades. Tests in an expert laboratory have shown that the design of load-bearing wall belongs to the class K 0 (45) After trim your home will not combustible. Energy conservation. The wall of the Styrofoam panel of 140 mm is equivalent to the performance indicators of brick wall thickness 2.5 m. When operating such a house requires 3 times less than the cost of heating, there is no need for additional insulation, and in summer there is no need for air conditioning. Year-round construction. Buildings and buildings can be constructed at any time of year. Construction in the winter does not lead to significant cost increase. Polystyrene panels are not afraid of no cold, no water. High strength. As evidenced by 9 points seismic resistance of 10 – point scale Richter. The house, built out of polystyrene foam panels do not shrink. Opportunities. – The transformation of the house in the space (extension in any direction, and the dismantling of the opportunity to move house and re-install in another location) – Construction of temporary construction – the use of unconventional bezstropilnogo solutions of polystyrene roof panels can speed construction and improve the home – simplification of the finishing work at the expense of a perfectly flat surface of the walls – construction in remote places, national parks, etc. – construction near water – construction add-ons to existing homes without changing the foundations. Environmentally friendly.
Somewhat more complicated lay out the walls of stone or brick, but the complexity of their installation is justified durability and fire safety of these materials. Large heat loss, thus, can be avoided by using the additional steam and heat insulation. For more information see this site: Keith Yamashita. And make the wood paneling inside the bath, you can bring it to the usual log. Frame wall construction method is also applicable in the construction of a bath. Being built on the foundation frame, sheathed The interior and exterior cladding and the void between the tile and filled with bulk insulation.
You can just build a frame walls and roofs, not forgetting the steam and heat insulation. Frame method is used in the manufacture of finished wall panels. Each wall completely with waterproofing and insulation are made separately, and then establish the foundation. Also, you may need to Samara drywall at low prices, as it is practical material, and easy to use. In the construction of the roof the roof is necessary to consider that it should not only protect against wind and rain, but also retain heat in the room as long as possible. You can build a roof with an attic or without a shed or gable, the main thing that it has fulfilled its main features: durability and insulation.
Of course, the attic roof and retain heat better in the year-round use of their sauna construction preferred. For garden bath is quite suitable single-pitch roof with no attic room with a ceiling. Moreover, such a roof is less expensive on board, boards and roofing. Shed roof can be further used for drying fruits and sunbathing. The ceiling in the bath is better made from heat-resistant and fireproof materials, such as asbestos tiles. If you make a wooden ceiling, the tree should be with the lowest tar, as resin softens at high temperatures and drips. On top of the ceiling falls vapor barrier material, and have him lagging. As a heater, you can use backfill small volume weight: expanded clay, peat, sawdust, boiler slag, woodchips. Doors and windows Doors and windows in the bath for better heat conservation make small sizes. Windows should be double-glazed front door to insulate oakum or foam and close the plywood, leatherette or boards. To the end of the door is attached cushion made of felt. Floors Floors in the steam room and washing should be done with concrete and put them on wooden lattice. When you fill a floor necessary to ensure drainage of water used. If the soil readily absorbs water, it is sufficient only to drain the pit, dug under the premise washer. If the soil is dense, then needed to bring the drainage pipe and make the diversion of water in convenient location.
Believe me, on paper, to reconstruct something much simpler than in reality, demolish and erect the walls! So that small savings early in the path may lead substantial costs already in the process of repair. It is obvious that if your chosen company has design offices, not one designer, that's a plus: one head is good, but a lot better. Teamwork, as a rule, more mature, deep developed and includes the ideas of several people. The creative process is complete the design project contains quite a lot of documents – from planning decisions, ending with recommendations on selection of furniture and accessories. The main purpose of its creation, regardless of the room is the final result, namely, harmonic and functional interior, the best use of floor space. Design and Construction – creative process.
Each designer style, but there are general principles of design that you're not bad to know. First, you need to maximize space – should not be empty and useless (Unresolved) spaces. Secondly, the planning of premises is carried out according to their functionality and overall customer requirements. Rooms must be proportional, through the redevelopment to eliminate bottlenecks and long room to minimize the number of angles. When redevelopment is necessary to take into account audibility, and not have a number of vital areas of parents and children. If possible, hide or beat the crossbar (bearing beams). For this commonly used solution in the form of arches, multi-level ceilings. The task of the designer is also the definition of stylistics of the premises and features of each room, calculating the practicality of opening doors and the location switches and sockets.
Hot, hotter In recent decades, scientists have observed many signs of rapid climate change. Across the globe are growing annual mean temperatures, rapidly melting glaciers thousands of years of the Alps, the Himalayas, Greenland. They talk about the upcoming sea-level rise of several meters. These frightening trends associated with the sharp increase in the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Studies of ice samples from Antarctica show Now that carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere as over the past 650,000 years. And even more alarming, that over the past half a century, this figure rose by a third! And the main reason for this is that mankind is burning all more fossil fuels: oil, gas, coal, etc. "The world's leading environmentalists agree that the only adequate response to the serious problem of climate change – is the systematic reduction greenhouse gases – said Alexei Kokorin, coordinator of the climate program of the Russian branch of wwf (World Wildlife Fund).
– The first real step in this direction was the signing of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which for subsequent years, has joined 181 countries (including Russia). This document, in particular, provides for the introduction of voluntary quotas for greenhouse gas (fixed at 1990 levels) and their gradual reduction. The point moves, Since 2004, when Russia joined the Kyoto Protocol, our country's participation in it was almost a formality. Largely due to the fact that quotas for CO2 emissions far exceeded the needs of domestic industry and energy.