Jose Carlos Kings

This summary has as base the book of Jose Carlos Kings, History & Theory, alado in the sub-chapters with the subjects: Modernity and history-knowledge, pags. 36 the 42; After-modernity, pags. 42 the 53; After-modernity and history-knowledge, pags. 53 the 62, of 1 section. This book was published by publishing company FGV of Rio De Janeiro, with editions in the 2003, 2005, 2006 and finally Reimpresso in 2007, that it is the edition that we are using. In this resenhado text, Jose Carlos Kings, makes a boarding on the ways of the historiografia in century XVIII, where he predominated the philosophy and the historical Reason. He also walks in century XIX, where history wants to emancipate itself for historical Science. Passing finally to century XX, where he can be distinguished two distinct phases of History: in the first part, a History-science, that invigorates in the first half of the century, and, in the second part, Anti-science in History, or Anti-history in the science, that if passes in the end of century.

The workmanship of Jose Carlos Kings, History & Theory, this divided in 21 chapters, under three sections. In the first section, Kings, make what we can call description of the History of the history, that if deals with one analyzes on the historiogrfico development in the world occidental person. In the second section the focus is in the great fall of History, passing of a global History to a micron-history, or as Kings the flame, ' ' history in migalhas' '. in to the third analyzes it section if it concentrates in the study of the Logic and its problematic one and in trying to establish as the historical knowledge has been argued in recent years. In the three chapters, that we base this summary, Jose Carlos Kings, retraces to century XIX, where the history-knowledge leaves of side its philosophical bias and becomes ' ' cientifica' '.

Capitalism Social

It made it humanizando the Nature. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of hein park capital on most websites. Being product of these circumstances it humanizou, them. Of a clear form, it perceived that production and the reproduction of these material conditions of existence, a time proceeded in group, if became penosas little. From this instant, in the process of humanizao of the Nature and the circumstances, it stopped definite social relations. &#039 surpassed its Nature; ' natural' ' acquired Nature ' ' social' '. The necessity of regulation for the collective life, the individuals between itself, and these with the community created a certain conscience, a notion of belonging and the necessity to adjust behaviors to this collective life. It provoked the appearance of the good one, the bad one, the good and the evil, of the useful one, and the useless one.

One established thus a board of duties and obligations. To survive, all were obliged to work and to fight ahead of the difficulties, of the enemies of the tribe. Thus qualities had been developed as bravery, aggressiveness in combat, solidarity, discipline, mutual aid, love to the children of the same tribe. In contrast, the cowardice it started to mean a vice horrible because it attempted against against the vital interests of the community. Evidently, in accordance with the social relations stopped in the production process and reproduction and its material conditions of life, the man creates the valuation of the beauty and the ugly one, the evil and the good, the bad one and the good one. Let us take, for example, the work. Inconceivable moral value in the Average Age, in the palaciano universe, became an acquisition of the modern culture, face to the characteristics of the Capitalism, for which the category work starts to possess value almost ontolgico. Since this ' ' state of Natureza' ' , the man constructed models of conceptions, varying enters desired and the indesejado one, what if it must preserve and what if must disdain, established in its objective circumstances, that is, its universe of references, in the form as keeps its permanent social relations stops to produce and to reproduce its material conditions of life.

Pressure Education

The pertaining to school system of the elite, in turn, satisfied, in certain direction, the scarce demands, whose horizontes cultural did not go beyond necessity of the fast conquest of a profession. The pertaining to school system of the dominadora classroom, in turn, satisfied in certain direction to also restricted the elective demand the education, that when to the amount, it wants when to the quality, for how much always was proper of the aspirations of the ruling class illustrated it simply, through the preparation for liberal careers. Such system revalidated the private individualism, whose rules already are given by the world of the bureaucracy and the organization, that comes supporting a speech that will teach to each one as if to relate with the world and the too much men. The divergence between real and proclaimed values can be patented, thus, for the inaquality of access of some social classrooms to the schools. In the truth the education right did not pass, in the life rale of the society, in the right of all those that if they showed capable, according to standards dictated for the values them ruling classes. this selectivity acquires character of a true social discrimination. In this in case that, education is faced differently in agreement the interests of the social classes. The leading layers, that see in the changes a threat to its stability, evidently matter to keep the educational system inside of its functions conservatives and to control the expansion that the pressure of the emergent layers induces the system to create. In function of this, the demanded educational changes are, therefore, but in the direction of the expansion of it offers of the existing school of what in the direction of if obtaining the substitution of the traditional models of education for new models.