The basis of any foundation is the ground on which he relies, which turn are divided into natural and artificial. If the soil before setting the foundation previously strengthened – it is artificial. In all other cases, the base foundation is a natural. The main characteristic of any of the soil – is its carrying capacity, which is determined by the load, providing no reason to shrink more acceptable standards. In turn, soil settlement depends on the shape and size of the foundation, as well as the degree of compressibility of the soil. One of the destabilizing factors in the construction of cottages, houses – are groundwater water, which reduces the strength of the soil. Methods of dealing with ground water – is a separate topic for discussion and not be considered here.
Main categories, which are classified soils – a rock and neskalnye. K rocky soils include rocks with rigid links occurring in the form of solid or fractured array. By neskalnym soils include: – coarse incoherent soils – sandy loose soil in the dry state – clayey connected grunty. risk during the construction of houses represent a so-called heaving soils. These primers, which during the freezing increases its volume, which can be so significant that it is able to cause deformation of the basement of the building. Such properties tend to have all kinds of clay soils, as well as dust and melkopeschanye. Sediment structure in the clay continues for longer time than on sand, because compressibility of clay soils above.
Bulk soils formed such as backfilling of gullies or landfill sites – the worst kind of foundation, since they have irregular compressibility and most cases generally can not be used as a natural base. Conduct geotechnical surveys in the area of construction to determine the type and properties of soils and their bearing ability and nature of education. In the case of occurrence of weak soils with low bearing capacity, they strengthen, while creating an artificial osnovanie.Sposoby soil stabilization are different and are applied depending on bearing capacity of soil and geology of the area features. One of the main ways to strengthen the soil are: – creation of sand or gravel bags – a way to seal the surface – a way to deep compaction.