Disarticulation of guildas (leagues of teceles) and exploitation of the agricultural workers who migram for the cities; substitution of the artisan workshops for the plant. Directed technological development to the increase of the production. The precocidade with that the industrial process occurs in England must still to the stimulaton of two factors: the partner-cultural environment favorable to the commercial activities, and the great flow of capital destined to the mechanization of the production, what it stimulates the fast technological development; both derivatives of the interest of the aristocracy in participating of the production processes. It is in this point that the technological progress becomes preponderant: siderurgy is developed to take care of the increasing use of iron in the new maquinrios; the use of boilers and tubings of iron goes to lead to the great discovery that goes to revolutionize the production processes: the use of the vapor to put into motion the maquinrio. The substitution of the animal effort for the vapor entirely initiates a new age for the humanity; we are difficult for, today so accustomed to mechanization, to understand the picture of new possibilities that if opened. In 1870, for example, the capacity of the machines the vapor of England was of 4 million HP; to generate this with animal force 6 million horses would be necessary! From the dissemination of the use of machines the vapor the industrial production knows a jump fabuloso: The iron-gusa production polishes of 125.000 tons in 1796 p 2.700.000 of tons 50 years later. The coal consumption goes of 11 million tons in 1800 for 100 million in 1870. The productivity of the man increases more than in 100 times in little more than half century! Social changes Leo Huberman identify the evolution of the systems of production in four periods of training, the period between centuries XVI and XVIII: 1.Sistema familiar: production essentially to take care of the proper consumption; eventual commercialization of the excess. .
Some cars were equipped with engines of the Volks, with the Ford/VW fusing forming the Aultolatina the Gurgel pass to be faced as competing. In 1987 it even launches the BR-800 with engine 100% developed by the Gurgel and praised for the competitors as the Volvo and Citren. Of beginning, the only form of purchase of the vehicle was the acquisition of Motor actions of Gurgel S/A that got the adhesion of 8.000 shareholders. 10,000 lots of action had been vendidos, each purchaser paid US$7.000 for the car and about US$ 1,500 for the actions, in the 1989 end had agio of 100% for 1,000 units more than produced. In 1990 the exempt government cars with lesser engine that 1000cm of the IPI. Thus the Fiat launches Uno Mille with price the same of Br-800, but offered to space bigger and better performance.
The opening of the market in the Collor government represented a hard blow to the company who not to obtain to adapt the new reality and the acirramento of market. The project of the plant of exchanges in the Cear represented a great upheaval to the financial health of the company who already was not well. Counting on the loan of the governments of the Cear (Ciro Gomes) and So Paulo (Fleury), that they had signed letters of intentions, and later had disregarded the agreements took the Gurgel for the agony. Already in January of 1993 the company left to pay wages and its action fell down disastrously from a high place in the market. Bogged in monstrous debts, weakened for the incited competition of the market, the Gurgel asked for forced agreement in June of 1993. It had an attempt to liquidate the debt of the plant in 1994 when the company asked for to the federal government a US$20.000.000 financing, but this was denied and the plant declared insolvent at the end of the year.
In the northeast interior, mainly in the Pernambuco hinterland, this register if makes very gift, the memory of a time where the Church and the State acted together, using the Portuguese immigrants and its native descendants in the imposition of its culture, as half of survival. In the case of Parnamirim, Capistrano de Abreu cites in its book ' ' History of the Colnia' ' , that the river Brgida, before being of the property of Martinho of the Agra Coast, was called for the cariris indians of river Paramirim: a redundancy of For (river) + mirim (small) = small river. He is possible that the inspiration for the change of name of the city of Leopoldina for Parnamirim has some relation with this information, considering that the homage to the old owners of the land is, at least, praiseworthy, for a honrosa question of the republicans in search of social justice. Also the fact of the mentors of the change of name of the city to be of the State of Amazon, region of Brazil where more the toponymy predominates tupi, this can have contributed for its consolidation. The aboriginal vocabulary in the country he is vast and same that if does not say more the Tupi, the dialects and aboriginal languages that today exist need the construction of a historiografia that if makes very current, in other States of Brazil mainly, such as: So Paulo, Paran, Rio Grande Do Sul, Par, Rio De Janeiro and Minas Gerais. In the hinterland of Pernambuco it has some works in this direction, however, is necessary that to know they are rescued them historically constructed that, exactly not being more in the memory of the aboriginal people, are registered in diverse workmanships of linguists, historians and researchers of the Brazilian aboriginal toponymy. The State of Pernambuco is one of the hiddings place northeast that still a toponymy presents that authorizes the aboriginals to fight for its space and to remember that its ancestor, even so have failed in the different fight with the colonizador, today already are recognized as owners of the land.
Stalin at this time all not yet felt a great need for qualified advice of military specialists and was mesmerized by the amount of cash divisions, without taking into account their actual combat power. However, this was like Hitler to Stalin. German plans attack on a large differ 1942 adventurousness. Winter offensive of the Red Army were in full off-road, which was not possible to quickly carry out operations in deep environment and the defeat of German compounds. The offensive was carried out on the tactics of World War I: infantry and cavalry, supported by artillery, that in the winter, a chilling maneuver off the roads to cover up their strong points German defense, led only to oust the Germans from the settlements (in the military reports of those years are referred to in the first place the name of the liberated smaller settlements, rather than the number of German prisoners of war), and This Red Army suffered heavy losses. While systemically front operations command and Headquarters of the Western Front was not planned, and local military operations to capture the individual settlements (and even cities), greater efficiency and the more strategic success – a major defeat of the enemy – do not bring. Neglect of Stalin functions of the General Staff has led to poor proschitannosti (in terms of supply by elongating the advancing communications in almost winter road connections) of the planned offensive. In the end, despite the unparalleled heroism of the advancing Soviet troops in the harshest winter conditions January 1942, thanks to the absence of the necessary supply of planned results are not achieved.
Another party of national character, the AIB if constituted as a counterpoint of the Brazilian Communists. Established in 1932, with the Manifesto of October, he was composed basically of elements of the urban average layers. The estimates of the number of adepts vary of the 100 a thousand 800 a thousand people, what it discloses the inexistence of unamimity in relation to this movement. Many times we are led to believe, in simplista way, in the transposition of main the European fascism as characteristic or until only of Brazilian the Integralista Action. However, it seems us that such generalization can lead to an error of interpretation. Authors exist who see with care this question.
Jose Chasin and Antonio Rago Son consider the AIB as: ' ' (…) right extreme movement, romantic and reactionary, but not fascist, because they understand that the fascism would be a particular expression of the period of training of full development in the way of capitalist production, that Brazil still it had not reached in the decade of 1930, given its structural dependence to the center of capitalismo' '. The influences fascists are not ignored. Salty, founding Pliny and main theoretician of the AIB, possua a great admiration for Mussolini. As proper it confesses: ' ' in one late of June, after having seen all New Italy, after abiding considered with all severity, I saw myself, in the Palace Venice, front the front with the creative genius of the politics of the Future (…) Age Mussolini. This man creates New Italy (…) ' '. What we try to affirm here is that, same considering this strong influence of the ideology and prxis fascist, we do not have to disrespect the Brazilian internal aspects that had provided the appearance of this movement. Moreover, we must remember that no ideology, whichever, are understood in the same way in different historical realities.